Plant Nutrients

Freshwater aquarium Plant Nutrients – Plant food secret explained

If you ever wonder what is inside the aquatic plant foods. In this article I have tried to explained the freshwater aquarium plant nutrients.

Mainly aquatic plants need two types of nutrients which are Macro Nutrients & Micro Nutrients

Plant Nutrients

Plant Nutrients

Macro Nutrients:
Primary: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) or known as NPK
Secondary: Sulfur (S), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg)

Micro Nutrients: Trace elements [Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn)]

Each element has a specific role, and makes a visible impact on the plants health. The below table list the main function and the impact of deficiency of each element.

If you are interested in estimated index dosing ( also know as EI dosing) then understanding the role of each plant nutrients will help you a lot.

Nutrient Elements Function Deficiency Causes
Nitrogen (N) Growth of leaves and stems Yellowing of older, lower leaves; stunting
Phosphorus (P) Root growth development, bloom, energy storage transfer within plant Purplish colouring, stunted roots
Potassium (K) Regulates plant uptake of nutrients, Promotes bloom, Disease resistance. Plants in general need less Potassium at flowering, excessive K slows fruit production. irregular growth, brown edges of leaves
Sulfur (S) Synthesis in plants of protein and vitamins. It helps the plant to utilize nitrogen and potassium effectively. It also drops the pH value (for alkaline water). Plants which are small and spindly with short, slender stalks. Growth retarded and maturity often delayed. On most plants, young leaves turn to light green or yellowish, with even lighter-coloured veins. It affects the young leaves because Sulphur, Calcium moves little within plant tissue. Growth is slow and leaves tend to get brittle and stay narrower than normal.
Calcium (Ca) Calcium plays an important role for plants growth process. It regulated the cells division and contributes to the stability of the plant. So a plant should always have sufficient amount of Calcium. Yellow/brown spots occur on older leaves, which may be surrounded by a sharp brown outlined edge.
Magnesium (Mg) It is essential for photosynthesis and energy transfer. it represents a building block for chlorophyll (leaf green). Will breakdown the medium-old leaves under the flowering top to support young parts of the plant. This breakdown is visible as rusty brown spots and/or vague, cloudy, yellow spots between the veins.
Iron (Fe) A key catalyst in chlorophyll production. High pH prevents plants from absorbing Fe. Fe is difficult for plants to absorb and it moves slowly within the plant. Turns new leaves pale yellow or white while the veins remain green.
Manganese (Mn) Works with plant enzymes to reduce nitrates before producing proteins. Turns young leaves a mottled yellow or brown.
Boron (B) Necessary for cell division and protein formation, also for pollination and seed production. Results slow growth rate
Copper (Cu) Catalyst for several enzymes. Please note excess Cu causes sudden death of plants. Makes new growth wilt and causes irregular growth.
Molybdenum (Mo) Helps form proteins, assists fixing nitrogen from the air. Causes leaves to turn pale, with scorched-looking edges, and to grow irregularly
Zinc (Zn) A catalyst: must be present in minute amounts for plant growth. Produce stunting (reduced growth), yellowing and curling of small leaves.
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Nitrogen Cycle

nitrogen cycle

nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen cycle or new tank syndrome or aquarium cycling:

Aquarium cycling (or Nitrogen Cycle) is the process by which useful bacteria colonise in your aquarium. These bacteria live on aquarium waste and decompose the toxic component such as Ammonium to nitrate in a two step process (Ammonia -> Nitrite -> Nitrate). The effects of the cycling process are sometimes referred to as “New Tank Syndrome”.

Aquarium being a closed environment with limited quantity of water, any kind of waste inside the aquarium can generate harmful/toxic chemicals. Air-borne bacteria living on such wastes produced by your aquarium fishes/pets, continue to grow, colonise and convert these wastes to safer by-products. However this process takes several weeks to months. Your initial fish will face this stress till the colonies of useful bacteria are established.

Nitrogen Cycle is particularly important because in a brand new aquarium, the aquarium waste continues to grow which produces toxic chemicals and the most important ones are Ammonia (NH3) & Nitrite (NO2). If the ammonia or nitrite content increases significantly (know as ammonia and nitrite spikes), it will damage the gills of your fish and can kill them. Even if your fish survive during ammonia or nitrite spikes, their gills will be damaged and they will be living in an unhealthy environment with lot of pain.

If you are a beginner then understanding the Nitrogen Cycle process will make it little easy or less painful for your aquatic pets. Before we get into details, let us understand the different types of cycling method and few basic components involved in Nitrogen cycle.

Components of Aquarium cycling:

Aquarium Waste: Anything organic that stays/is added to the aquarium and not consumed are call aquatic waste. Uneaten food, fish wastes (like pooh or urine), decaying plants, dead fish are the best example for aquarium waste. All type of aquarium wastes is very high in protein.

Nitrogen (N2): Nitrogen is part of every living tissue and comprises 78% of the atmosphere but free Nitrogen in the atmosphere is not the form that plants or animals can use.

Ammonia (NH3): When an organism dies, nitrogen moves from plant or animal into the inorganic chemical ammonia by the process of bacterial decay or Nitrification. This decomposition of animal protein (called mineralization) produces large quantities of ammonia through the process of ammonification.

Nitrite (NO2-): It’s an intermediate state in oxidation process between ammonia to nitrate and concentration in oxygenated water is typically less than 0.005 mg/l. Nitrite reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Anything more than 0.05 mg/l is dangerous to your fish. Some fishes are more sensitive to nitrite than others. Studies also show smaller fish are less sensitive to nitrite than bigger fish.

Nitrate (NO3-): Plants consumes nitrate and during photosynthesis converts them to nucleic acids and proteins or in other words acts as a fertilizer for plants. Nitrates are not highly toxic to fish but can affect the health of the fish if left on high concentration. Nitrate will contribute to loss of appetite and stress your fish, as well as contribute to algae growth, so it is important to do regular small water changes to keep your tank in best condition.

Let us understand different types of cycling methods:

There are primarily 4 types of Aquarium cycling:

  • Cycling with starter fish: This is the most common and traditional cycling method. In this you initiate the cycle by introducing few hardy fish (referred as starter fish)
  • Fish-less cycling: As the name suggests, the tank is cycled with no aquatic pets in the aquarium, but with ammonia.
  • Silent cycling: In silent cycling the tank is cycled with densely planted aquatic plants.
  • Cycling with chemicals: In this cycling method, the tank is cycled with commercially available chemical or products.

Cycling with starter fish:
This process is probably most simple and easy but the down side is, your starter fish (2-4 small, hardy, disposable fish that you introduce first) takes all the pain to provide a safer environment for you aquatic pets. Before you start the cycle (i.e, before introducing any new fish), leave your tank for at least a week filled with tap water – this will reduce the chlorine content of the water and also settle down any suspended particles. Then introduce only few starter fish to begin the cycle.

This cycling process has 3 stages:

Stage 1 – Primary stage (day 1 to day 3): When a fish is introduced to a new tank, they generate aquarium waste which then breaks down to either ammonium(NH4) (for water with PH < 7) or Ammonia (NH3) ( for water with PH > 7). The NH4 is not toxic but the NH3 is toxic and very harmful to the fish. The Ammonia (NH3) rises very rapidly after 48 to 72 hours from the beginning of the cycle. Anything more than 2mg/l of ammonia is dangerous for fish.

Stage 2 – Intermediate stage (day 3 to day 7): From the 3rd day onwards, the useful bacteria (called Nitrosomonas) oxidizes the ammonia to nitrite which is still toxic. Nitrosomonas are so called nitrifiers which consume ammonia and excrete nitrite.

Stage 3 – Final Stage (day 8 to day 42): After a while another set of useful bacteria (called Nitrobacter & Nitrospira) converts the nitrites into nitrates. To reduce this nitrate concentration, you need to perform regular partial water change (every week).

Note: I have read many articles and some of them argue about which bacteria (Nitrobacter or Nitrospira) actually convert nitrite into nitrate and I am not sure which one is actually responsible. However the bottom-line is one of the bacteria converts the nitrite to nitrate.

Tips: There are several ways to jumpstart your above nitrogen cycle and can reduce the cycle time.

  • If you already have an aquarium, or know anyone who has, you can use mature bacteria colony from an existing cycled tank to jumpstart a new one in your new aquarium. Gravel and biological filter media is a rich source for bacteria. Keep in mind that even harmful bacteria can be included when you use gravel and filter media from another aquarium.
  • Another way to jumpstart the new bacteria colony is to buy water additives with small populations of suitable bacteria from fish stores.

Recommended starter fish: Choose few hardy fish and something that you will want to have in your tank on the long run. I have seen many pet shops suggesting using feeder goldfish. Please do not cycle your tank with any goldfish unless you intend to keep goldfish. For a small community fish tank I would recommend White Clouds Mountain Minnows or Zebra Danios. They are hardy cycling fish and goes with any community tank (except tank with very big fish). You can also use Cherry Barbs or Tiger Barbs but these are slightly more aggressive.

Fish-less cycling:
The fishless cycle is a new cycling method and has become very popular in recent years. Fish-less cycling requires lot more effort and longer duration to complete the cycle. You need to have patience for fish-less cycling. If you are a beginner then you may find it difficult but by doing this you are not troubling any fish. In fish-less cycling, do not introduce any fish till the cycle is complete.

You will need the following items for fish less cycling

  • A testing kit to test ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates.
  • A bottle of pure ammonia with no other impurities (except water or ammonium hydroxide) on it. Pure liquid ammonia is clear with no bubbles or fizz on it.
  • Some bacteria (know as seeders) from any other cycled tank. The bacteria colonise densely in aquarium substrate or filter media. So get some water (about 2.5 US gallon or 10 litres), some substrate/gravel/pebbles (1kg) from a cycled tank, squeezed water from the filter media. If possible get a part of filter media. More bacteria you have the faster the cycling process. If you don’t have access to a fully cycled tank then you may ask your local store to help you.

Once you have all the ingredients, you can start the cycling process as described in the following steps:

Step 1: Fill up your aquarium tank with 40 – 50% water. Don’t fill the tank 100% as you need to do a water change end of the cycle to remove any nitrate content.

Step 2: Take few gravel/substrate and filter media and make a small packet (so that it can fit into your filter) using any clean cloth. Keep the packet inside the filter.

Step 3: Add the remaining substrate/gravel to your new tank.

Step 4: As cycling depends on oxygen, start your air pump with as many air stones as you can. Leave the light and air pump till the cycle is complete.

Step 5: Increase the water temperature to 30 Degree C or 86 Degree F. Higher temperature helps the cycling process.

Step 6: Now add the pure ammonia drop by drop (and keep a count of it), test the ammonia concentration. Continue this exercise till the ammonia concentration reaches up to 5.0 ppm. Make a note of amount of ammonia drops you have added to for future reference. Remember, if you add too much of ammonia then the cycle may not start.

Step 7: Leave your aquarium for 24 hours

Step 8: Add the same amount of ammonia (amount that you have added on the day one to reach 5.0 ppm) to your tank every day and test your water till you start some nitrite reading.

Step 9: Test the water for ammonia & nitrite every day till the cycle is complete.

Step 10: Once you start getting nitrite reading reduce the ammonia dose to half and continue the process till the nitrite reduces to zero.

Step 11: This zero nitrite and ammonia represents that the useful bacteria have colonised, but the water has a high concentration of nitrate (NO3-) on it and too much nitrate is dangerous to fish so you need to do a water change.

Step 12: You can change up to 95% water (but don’t wash the filter or substrate otherwise you will loose all your bacteria. After water change test the nitrate content. If the nitrate content is still high do some more water change and test again. Continue this process till you reach the nitrate concentration less than 10 mg/l.

Step 13: Finally test the water once again and a reading with zero ammonia , zero nitrite and nitrate less than 10 gm/l represents a fully cycled tank which is safe for your aquatic pets.

Ammonia Test: you can test Ammonia from day 3 onwards on a daily basis till you see a sharp drop in the Ammonia concentration. After the sharp drop continue your test less frequently (may be once on 4-5 days) till ammonia concentration reached to Zero. If your Ammonia concentration does not drop then you will find your fish are very stressed or trying to breath from the surface of your tank. In such cases you need to take quick action to reduce the Ammonia either by partial water change (up to 50%) or ask your local fish store to provide suitable chemical for it.

Nitrites Test: You can test nitrite content after a week once in every 4 or 5 days till the concentration reduces to zero. If you find your fish are stressed then take quick action to reduce the nitrite concentration by partial water change (up to 50%).

The overall length of a fish less cycle time can vary from 2 to 6 weeks depending on temperature, PH, light, air supply and bacteria that you add to initiate the process.

Silent cycling:
In silent cycling you fill the aquarium with densely planted aquatic plants. Choose plants that are sturdy and grow fast. During a silent cycle, the levels of bacteria will typically be very low and the nitrogen will instead be consumed by the plants. This is still a comparatively unusual cycling method. According to some aquarists the plants will not only efficiently cycle the aquarium, but also decrease the spikes in nitrate and ammonia levels that are often seen during the more common cycling methods. The downside of Silent Cycling is it require a very long cycling period.

Cycling your tank using chemical:
There are many commercial chemical products which can control ammonia. Personally I would not recommend this method for home aquarium. This requires a lot of expertise and may be applicable for huge tanks. When you use any chemical to stop unwanted increase in ammonia levels often results in starvation of biological filter (remember, useful bacteria live on ammonia) and may destroy the existing colony which will lead to more ammonia problems. If the biological filter is destroyed, you will observe ammonia spike on your tank and have to cycle your tank as it’s a new setup.

As you now understand what is happening to your tank in the 1st 6 weeks of your tank setup, let me explain how to control the nitrogen cycle and make sure that the water is healthy for your fish.

Tips to control Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate:

  1. The bacteria colonise on the filter media (sponge) so don’t replace them if it is not required. This will destroy their colony and you may see a sudden increase in nitrite/ nitrate.
  2.  Never wash the filter media in tap water which will kill the useful bacteria. Use the tank water in a mug/pot and wash your filter media with the old aquarium water.
  3. Don’t try to change PH of water (if it’s not absolutely necessary) because it can be fatal for useful bacteria.
  4. In a planted aquarium, the aquatic plants consume ammonia & nitrates and hence contribute to the nitrogen cycle.
  5. If you find ammonia/nitrite/nitrate content high, check the following
    — Monitor when you feed your fish, any uneaten food will generate more aquarium waste and degrade your water quality.
    — Increase air circulation by volume (by adding more air-stones or increasing the running time for your air pump). Additional oxygen will help your fish to breath and speed up the oxidation process.
    — For planted aquarium leave the light on for 12 hours, Plants will consume the nitrate.
    — Do a partial water change up to 25%

Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES):

The image shown in this article on Nitrogen Cycle is from the book “The Healthy Aquarium, Author – Dr Neville Carrington” and the credit goes to the Author/publisher.

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Eheim canister filter review

Eheim canister Filter

Eheim Filters

Eheim canister filter are the most popular model in canister filter range. The Eheim canister filter has been on the market for years and proven itself millions of times. This is the basic model of Eheim canister filter, yet still features perfect pump output, filter efficiency, maximum running smoothness, and endless continuous operation. The classic one-chamber design allows for the greatest flexibility in media set up for biological, mechanical, chemical and adsorptive filtration. Classic filters can be used for fresh and saltwater aquariums.

From a compact external canister filter for aquarium sizes up to 250 l to a large filter for aquarium sizes up to 1500 l, the classic range features carefully tailored external canister filters, equipped with high quality components with an excellent price-performance ratio. You can’t go wrong when you choose a classic model. Classic external canister filters have everything a filter needs. They feature the proverbial EHEIM running smoothness and sophisticated functionality.

Eheim canister Filter 2217

Eheim classic Filter 2217

The “Full Space” design of Eheim’s canister allows it to large amounts of filter media while making it more versatile. The filter comes complete with a safety hose-connection system to stop separation, all the filter medias needed to set up the filter, intake and outtake tubes, and double isolating valves.

All Classic filters come with a two year manufacturer guarantee. Please check this with your retailer for the details. The Eheim Classic Series is available in following models:

Eheim 2211 for Aquarium size upto 150.80 Litres(39 US Gallons)
Eheim 2213 for Aquarium size upto 248.82 Litres(66 US Gallons)
Eheim 2215 for Aquarium size upto 346.84 Litres(92 US Gallons)
Eheim 2217 for Aquarium size upto 599.43 Litres(159 US Gallons)
Eheim 2250 for Aquarium size upto 995.28 Litres(264 US Gallons)
Eheim 2260 for Aquarium size upto 1492.92 Litres(396 US Gallons)

Eheim canister Filter - internal flow

Eheim Filter internal flow

Eheim 2211 for Aquarium size 150.8 Litres (39 US Gallons): The Eheim 2211 canister filter is the smallest filter in this series and is a good choice for small to medium size aquariums. The Eheim 2211 canister filter is designed for tanks up to 39 gallons, pump output of 78 gallons per hour and filter circulation of 62 gallons per hour. The volume of the filter is 0.26 gallons and it uses 5 watts of electricity.

The Eheim 2211 canister filter is sure to give you years of dependable service. Although more expensive than other brands, Eheim canister filters last longer and suffer from few breakdowns, making them cheaper in the long run. Convenient and multifunctional Filter Media are Extending the Capabilities of the Filter

Eheim classic Filter

Eheim canister Filter

Eheim 2213 for Aquarium size 249 Litres(66 US Gallons): The Eheim 2213 Canister Filter has a compact pump coupled with a large volume canister for filter media. The filter is for aquariums up to 66 gallons with a maximum pump performance of 116 gph and delivery head of 4 foot and 11 inches. It is extremely quiet, durable and long lasting. It provides high pump output and effective use of filter media for fresh or saltwater aquariums.

Filter Size: 6″ diameter x 13″ high
Tubing: 494 (1/2″) tubing for intake and outtake.

Eheim 2215 for Aquarium size 347Litres (92 US Gallons): The Eheim 2215 Canister Filter has a compact pump coupled with a large volume canister for filter media. The filter is for aquariums up to 93 gallons with a maximum pump performance of 164 gph and delivery head of 5 foot and 10 inches. It is extremely quiet, durable and long lasting. It provides high pump output and effective use of filter media for fresh or saltwater aquariums.

Filter Size : 7″ diameter x 14″ high
Tubing: 494 (1/2″) tubing for intake and outtake.

Eheim 2217 for Aquarium size 599.43 Litres(159 US Gallons): The Eheim 2217 Canister Filter has a compact pump coupled with a large volume canister for filter media. The filter is for aquariums up to 159 gallons with a maximum pump performance of 264 gph and delivery head of 7 foot and 6 inches. It is extremely quiet, durable and long lasting. It provides high pump output and effective use of filter media for fresh or saltwater aquariums.

Filter Size : 8″ diameter x 16″ high
Tubing: 495 (5/8″) tubing for intake. 494 (1/2″) tubing for outtake.

Eheim canister Filter 2215

Eheim classic Filter 2215

Eheim 2250 for Aquarium size 995.28 Litres(264 US Gallons): These classic external canister filters have been proven models for large aquarium sizes up to a volume of 1000 l for years. Equipped with large canister 7 l and strong pumps 1200 l/h, large aquariums are filtered efficiently. The large model 2260 is equipped with a drain cock in the bottom of the canister for easier use.

Eheim 2260 for Aquarium size 1492.92 Litres (396 US Gallons): These classic external canister filters have been proven models for large aquarium sizes up to a volume of 1500 l for years. Equipped with large canister volumes 23 land strong pumps 2400 l/h, large aquariums are filtered efficiently. The Eheim 2260 is equipped with a drain cock in the bottom of the canister for easier use.

Maintainance of Eheim Classic filters: EHFIMECH should be used at the bottom suction area. It provides mechanical filtration. Next is a Coarse Filter Pad. The next layer of EHFISUBSTRAT will act as the main biological filter medium. The substrate’s high porosity is ideal for bacteria colonization and ensures unbeatable long term decomposition of Ammonia and Nitrites. Next is a Fine Filter Pad and a carbon pad. Chemi-pure can be used as a replacement for the Carbon Pad for chemical filtration (10oz per 50 gallons) for freshwater aquariums. Depending upon the desired water quality, the layers of filter media can be increased. Specific water treatment can also be achieved with an individual filter media arrangement.

Eheim 2250 for Aquarium size 995.28 Litres(264 US Gallons)


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Best location for fish aquarium at home

Best location for fish aquarium at home : Take extra precaution while selecting the best location for  fish aquarium at home. Try to avoid places near to an air-conditioner or a room heater that can fluctuate the water temperature widely. Avoid noisy/busy areas such as next to entrances, television sets, speakers, etc. which can disturb your peace loving fish. Form the fish prospective, you should avoid high traffic area in the house as the fish will get scared as and when someone goes near to the fish tank. If you are selecting a very big aquarium and you do not live on the ground floor then it is always best to place a tank along a wall, where floor supports are usually greater, rather than in the middle of a room. Keeping aquarium too close to a window may encourage growth of unwanted algae and may over heat the tank. Remember you will need electrical points near to your aquarium otherwise you have to use some extension cable for the power supply. Though not necessary keeping your aquarium near to a water source will make your life easy while changing water as I will recommend to change 5% to 10% of water every week.

Vastu fish aquarium location at home :  Some of the Vastu experts believes keeping  a fish aquarium is one of the best solutions for any Vastu defect. As per vastu sashtra, every object and direction has some Vastu significance. One should not place a fish tank directly opposite or near a cooking stove or burner. As per vastu shastra, fire represents livelihood and water represents wealth. Keeping water element near a stove or burner can impact the growth of wealth as water will distinguishes the fire.  If you plan to have a pond or indoor water fountain, ensure the water is flowing towards the entrance of your house and not away from your house.  in most cases experts recommend to keep the fish aquarium or fish pond in East-SouthEast, West-NorthWest and North-NorthWest direction. Vastu shastra recommends to keep your fish aquarium in the drawing room and should not keep them in bedroom, kitchen and bathroom. If it is kept in proper location or direction then its considered as Vastu fish aquarium. Even Chinese feng-sui has similar guidelines.

Best aquarium stand: There is a wide variety of fish-tank stands available. So look for a stand that you like but make sure that it will be able to take the weight of the tank (an established 30 litre tank can weigh up to 45kg with gravel/sand and other decorations). Try to find a stand with an enclosed cabinet which will hide the lot of electrical wires and equipment. An aquarium is a big investment in terms of both time, money and bear in mind that once installed this is something that you wouldn’t replace easily, so purchasing a good quality fish-tank stand that suits your home’s style can save you a lot of effort changing it later. Stands with matching hoods are available that further enhance the aesthetics of your aquarium. 

Posted in Aquatics

Vastu Shastra and Pets

There are lot of views on Pets and vastu shastra or feng shui. While many believe nurturing animal is a good thing, many have a completely different view. Many time people just associate things/events with their Pets. In many places a death of any pet is associated to an incoming danger to the family (which killed the pets and hence saved the family). in most cases something bad happens in the family, they just blame the poor pet. In past the most common pets are dogs, cats, lizards, parrots, peacock, pigeons, eagles, horse, elephants, deer, buffaloes, cows, sheep, camel, fish, snakes and many exotic creature.  Now a days lot of animals are banned by the local authorities and cant not be kept as pets.

Vastu shastra is very prominent in Asia and not in western part of the world. To many, it does not make any sense, that vastu shastra works in Asia but is not in Europe or America.

Lot of  people believe, pets has nothing do with their fate or vastu. Nurturing any animal is extremely good for the family as a whole. In India and its near by countries keeping cow is considered auspicious, lot of people feed the dogs on the street and many just take care of animal because they like it.

Many do not encourage keeping pets especially when small baby, sick or old aged around because most pets carries virus and can affect their family members. Others avoid pets with a fear that they will develop attachment and my end up with abandonment due to disease or old age.

Many suggests cat may be of better choice (than a dog) as it has lesser attachment with human being and has greater ability to survive in case of abandonment.

While taking care of pet is a good thing, it is important to understand their specific need otherwise you may end up with an unhappy pet. So what ever pet you like, make sure you do a good research before you bring them home. Some vastu shastra experts suggests to keep these pets in NorthWest, North, East, and South-SouthEast directions. you can also read the article on Best fish aquarium location at home.

Please note, keeping pets may not be cheap (depending on where you live and what pet you want to keep), in some countries, you need licence to keep exotic animals and you may need special arrangement if you want to keep them. Vastu shastra does not approve any thing which contradicts with the laws of nature. So what ever you keep make sure you provide their freedom and natural habitats.

Posted in Pets

Aquatic Pets are Less Demanding

All Aquatic pets are less demanding with compared to other pets such as cats, dogs etc, you only need 10 minutes per day (or even less) and are much less expensive than other pets.

Posted in Aquatics